Type Descriptions of the Projectile Points of the Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina

Big Sandy Side Notched

( Kneberg )
This point is triangular with excurvate sides and an incurvate or straight basal edge. The blade is made thin by pressure chipping retouch. The side notches are perpendicular to the long axis of the blade and are short and narrow. This point is Early to Late Archaic; most common ca. 3500 B.C. to 1000 B.C.
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Bradley Spike

( Kneberg )
This point has a very narrow, thick, trianguloid blade with straight edges and a median ridge on both sides. The stem is straight or tapered. The base may show part of the original cortex. The overall length is greater than 70 mm. The point has a drill or spike-like appearance and is made by percussion chipping. The length is two times the width. This is an Early Woodland point.
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Clovis

(Suhm & Jelks 1962)
This is a stemless fluted lanceolate point with parallel or slightly convex sides and a concave base. The basal edges are ground smooth. The flute can extend the length of the point, but usually extends only about half way. This is a early Paleo indian point dating to ca. 9,800-9,400 B.C.
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Clovis, unfluted

(Cambron & Hulse)
This point has an incurvate base. The cross-section is biconvex. The well thinned basal edges are ground, sometimes up to half of the length of the point. The blade is medium to large in size and excurvate with fine retouching along edges. Points range from 46 mm to 179 mm long and average 25mm wide. The blade is made with transverse-oblique, random, or collateral flaking. Thin broad flakes are removed from the basal edge and hafting area, but it is not fluted. This is an early Paleo indian point from 11,000-10,000 B.C.
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Connestee Triangular

This point is a medium-sized isosceles triangle with no serration. Blade edges are usually straight, but can be incurvate or excurvate. The blade is about twice as long as it is wide. Most bases are straight and occasionally part of the cortex is remaining. Points range from 24-47 mm long, 15-24 mm wide, and 4-9 mm thick. This is a Middle Woodland point. (Click thumbnail to see a larger image)
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Coosa Notched

(DeJarnette & Kurhack 1963)
This point is well finished with a thinned stem less than 9 mm long. The base is straight, excurvate, or incurvate with a well defined hafting area. This is a Early and Middle Woodland point. (Click thumbnail to see a larger image)
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Copena Triangular

( Cambron 1965 )
This trianguloid blade has recurvate sides without serrations. The point is not finely worked. The base is thinned and usually concave, but can be straight or convex. The length is greater than two times the width. These points are Middle Woodland dating to ca. 2000-2500 B.P.
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Garden Creek Triangular

( Keel )
This point is a long, narrow, concave-based, isosceles triangle. Blade edges are straight or excurvate with a very sharp point. The blade is about three times as long as it is wide. The base is concave and unthinned. Points range from 31-68mm long, 21-29mm wide, and 5-10mm thick. This point belongs to the late Pigeon and early Connestee periods. This is an Early to Middle Woodland Point. (Click thumbnail to see a larger image)
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Guilford Lanceolate

(Coe 1964)
The blade is a long, thick, lanceolate form; slightly rounded, and carefully chipped. The sides are symmetrical and smoothly contoured. The base is concave, rounded, or straight. In few points the sides have a shoulder or break in contour, but most have no shoulder. The overall length ranges from 50-120mm. with a width of 20-35mm. The length is an average of three times as long as the width. Blade width is usually twice the thickness. This point is Middle Archaic dating to ca. 4,000 B.C. (Click thumbnail to see a larger image)
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Gypsy Stemmed

(Oliver 1981)
This is a small triangular blade with excurvate or straight edges. The base is broad and straight, excurvate, or occasionally incurvate. The well defined shoulder slopes toward the base. Points range from 28-46mm long, 17-26mm wide, and 6-10mm thick. This is a Woodland point dating to ca. 1,000B.C.- A.D.500.
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Hardaway Blade

(Coe 1964)
The blade is broad and thin with rounded sides. The base is concave or occasionally straight with some basal grinding. The base is thinned with broad shallow percussion flakes extending onto the face of the blade. Points range from 50-80 mm long, 23-50 mm wide, and 5-12 mm thick. The length is more than two times the width. This is a late Paleo indian point.
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Hardaway-Dalton

(Coe 1964)
The side-notched blade is broad and thin with rounded, frequently serrated sides. The base is deeply concave, frequently recurved, and ground. The side notches are shallow, ground, and broad about 20mm. in length. The overall length ranges from 50-80mm. with a width of 30-40mm. and 5-8mm. thick. This blade is finely retouched and frequently refinished with fine serration. This is a Paleo indian point about 11,000-8,500 B.C.
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Hardaway Side-notched

(Coe 1964)
The blade is broad and thin with straight sides, rounded occasionally. The side notches are usually narrow, deep, and U-shaped with ground edges. The average notch is 4 mm deep and 5 mm wide. The base is concave, recurved, or ground. The base is thinned with broad shallow flakes which extend one third up the face of the blade. Points range from 28-50 mm long, 23-35 mm wide, and 3-6 mm thick. This is a Paleo indian point dating to ca. 10,000-8,000B.C.
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Haywood Triangular

(Keel)
Small, triangular blade with straight or slightly excurvate sides. The blade is a bit longer than it is wide. The base is straight or incurvate. Points range from 17-22 mm long and 12-19 mm wide. The thickest part is usually the center of the blade (3-7 mm thick). This point is made out of chert by pressure flaking or decortication and subsequent flaking. This point dates to the later part of the Connestee period.
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Kanawha Stemmed

(Broyles 1971)
This point is small with a short, rounded, shallow-notched base. The blade is triangular and usually narrow. Points range from 19-48 mm long, 19-37 mm wide, and 3-7 mm thick. The blade edges are straight or incurvate and almost always serrated. The shoulders are wide and straight, usually at a right angle, but occasionally sloping towards the shoulder blade juncture. The small stem is expanding with rounded corners and is usually ½ the blade width. The stem base is usually notched, thinned with small flakes, and never ground. The face of the blade has large random flake scars and the edges are thinned with small narrow flakes. Points are often resharpened resulting in concave or incurvate sides. This is an Early Archaic point.
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Kessell Side-notched

(Broyles 1971)
This is a thin, well made side-notched point with a concave base. Points range from 36-48 mm long, 23-29 mm wide, and 3-6 mm thick. The notches are U-shaped and as wide as they are deep (3-4 mm). Notches were made by flaking on both faces and are 7-9 mm from the base. The blade faces are flattened and thinned with random flakes. The straight or excurvate edges are finely worked with small flakes, but without serration. The base is concave and thinned with many small chips on one side and several large flakes on the other. There is occasional smoothing on the base, but no grinding. This point may be similar to the Big Sandy I. This is an Early Archaic point dating to between 8,500 and 8,000B.C.
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Kirk Corner Notched, small variety

(Broyles 1971)
This is a small triangular blade with a straight or convex base, corner notches and serrated edges. Points range from 27-44 mm long, 22-29 mm wide, and 2-4 mm thick. The sides are straight or excurvate. Occasionally this point will be asymmetrical. The flat face has random flaking and the edges are thinned with small secondary chipping. This blade is serrated, sometimes deeply. The base can be straight or convex, but never concave. The base is usually ½ or 1/3 the total length and is as wide or wider than the blade. Sometimes barbs from 5-10mm long are present. There is no basal grinding. This is an Early Archaic point dating to about 6,000-7,000B.C. (Click in thumbnail for a larger image)
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Kirk Corner Notched, large variety

(Broyles 1971)
This is a large triangular blade with a straight or concave base, corner notches, and serrated edges. Points range from 37-82 mm long, 24-38 mm wide, and 4-8 mm thick. The blade edges are usually straight, but can be excurvate or incurvate. The blade face is flat with no medial ridge and is covered with large random flakes. The edges are thinned with long narrow secondary flakes. Most edges are deeply serrated, 2 mm wide and 3 mm deep. The well defined shoulder is either straight or has barbs which form a notch 10-14 mm wide and 10-12 mm. deep The lightly ground base is straight, concave, or rarely convex. The base is thinned with several small flake scars and can be as wide as the blade. Tangs on the base are rounded or acute. This point is dated to the Early Archaic.
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Kirk Stemmed

(Coe 1964)
This is a long daggerlike blade with deep serrations and a broad stem. The narrow, thick blade has concave edges toward the base, but recurved edges toward the point. Broad corner notches produce an expanding stem and shoulders that project backwards. The base is straight or slightly rounded. The overall length ranges from 70-150 mm with a width of 30-50 mm and 8-15 mm thick. This point is made by pressure. This is an Archaic point dating to 7,000-6,000 B.C.
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Lamoka

(Ritchie 1971)
This point is small, narrow, and thick with side notches or a straight stem with sloping shoulders. Points range from 22-63 mm long. They are two or three times as long as wide and have a maximum thickness of 5 mm. The blade edges are straight or slightly excurvate and the cross section is biconvex or median ridged. The base is straight, oblique, or slightly convex and as thick as the blade. The base often has part of the original outer cortex of the rock from which it was made. This point was dated to be between 3,500 B.C. to 2,500 B.C., but persisted into Middle Woodland times.
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Lecroy Bifurcated Stem

( Kneberg )
The blade is small, relatively broad, and trianguloid with straight or incurvate edges. The edges are usually serrated. Some points are deeply serrated causing a series of sharp barbs down the edge. The edges are finely chipped and sometimes ground smooth. The base is broad and bifurcated. This point is dated to the Early Archaic period. (Click on thumbnail for a larger image)
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Ledbetter Stemmed

( Kneberg )
This blade is asymmetrical. The edges of the blade are asymmetrically recurvate. This creates unequal shoulders, one being blunt and narrow and the other a flaring barb. The stem is straight or tapered with a straight or excurvate basal edge. The length is greater than 70 mm. This is a Middle to Late Archaic point.
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Mac Corkle Stemmed

(Broyles 1971)
This point has a small stem with a concave base and serrated blade edge. Points range from 40-63 mm long, 22-35 mm wide, and 3-6 mm thick. The blade is triangular with straight or slightly excurvate edges. There are large random flakes on the face; the edge is thinned and serrated. The flared and rounded stem is 12-17 mm long and 18-26 mm wide. The edges of the stem are finely chipped. The base is concave and thinned by many small flakes on one side and by one large flake on the other side. Basal grinding may extend from shoulder to shoulder. This point is dated to Early Archaic period between 6,850 B.C. and 6,750 B.C.
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Morrow Mountain Stemmed

(Keel)
This point has a small triangular or long narrow blade with a tapered pointed stem. Points range from 30-80 mm long and 18-45 mm wide. The pointed stem occasionally has grinding on it. This is an Archaic point with a temporal span of 5,000 B.C.-4,500 B.C. (Click on thumbnail for a larger image)
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Ottare Stemmed

(Keel)
The triangular blade is broad, short and made by percussion chipping. The edges are variable, straight, convex, or concave. The stem is ground and can be parallel, rounded, or contracting. The usually thinned, ground base is straight, rounded, or concave. The base occasionally has remains from the striking platform. Resharpening the blade can make it pentagonal. The flake scars are broad and flat. Points range from 37-70 mm long, 23-40 mm wide, and 7-12 mm thick. This point is dated to be Late Archaic to Early Woodland. (Click on thumbnail for a larger image)
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Palmer Corner-notched

(Coe 1964)
The blade is small and triangular with straight, deeply serrated sides. The base is straightened by thorough grounding. The corner notches average 3 mm wide and 5-7 mm long. The bottom of the well made notch forms a projecting barb which usually exceeds the width of the base. Points range from 28-60 mm long, 15-25 mm wide, and 5-12 mm thick. This point is made by pressure flaking. The serration flakes are long and overlap towards the face center. This is an Early Archaic point dating to 8,000 B.C.
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Pentagonal Corner-notched

(Keel & Egloff 1984)
This is a relatively small, well made, thin point. Large, flat flakes are neatly removed to make the point very thin. The edges are retouched with pressure flaking and the base and notches are ground smooth.
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Pigeon Side-notched

(Keel)
This triangular blade has concave or straight sides. The length is twice the width. The base can be incurvate, excurvate, or straight and thinned with pressure flaking. The side notches are very shallow measuring 1 mm deep and 1-3 mm wide. Points range from 28-39 mm long, 13-23 mm wide, and 6-8 mm thick. This point is made by percussion-flaking with pressure-flaking along the edges and side notches. This is an Early Woodland point. (Click on thumbnail for a larger image)
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Pisgah Triangular

( Dickens )
These small isosceles or equilateral triangles are usually made from a flake. Sometimes the points have fine bifacial flaking, but usually they are rough, crudely worked triangular flakes. The base is straight, slightly convex, or occasionally concave. The lateral edges are sometimes serrated. Points average from 16-30 mm long and 11-21 mm wide. This is a Mississipian point dating to 1,100-1,500 A.D. (Click on thumbnail for a larger image)
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Plott Short Stemmed

(Keel)
The broad triangular blade has straight edges and a sharp tip. The stem is broad and parallel-sided or expanding. The base is straight or slightly incurvate. Points range from 25-36 mm long, 15-24 mm wide, and 6-9 mm thick. The stem width ranges from 10-20 mm and is 3-8 mm long. It is made by percussion-flaking with pressure retouching along the blade edge. This is an Early Woodland point. (Click on thumbnail for a larger image)
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Savannah River, small variety

(Keel)
The broad triangular blade has straight edges and a sharp tip. The stem is broad and parallel-sided or expanding. The base is straight or slightly incurvate. Points range from 25-36 mm long, 15-24 mm wide, and 6-9 mm thick. The stem width ranges from 10-20 mm and is 3-8 mm long. It is made by percussion-flaking with pressure retouching along the blade edge. This is an Early Woodland point. (Click on thumbnail for a larger image)
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Savannah River, large variety

( South 1959 )
The blade is trianguloid with slightly excurvate sides. Points range from 75-105 mm long, 34-38 mm wide. The shoulders are rounded or at an obtuse angle, seldom a right angle. The stem measurements range from 27-32 mm long and 21-25 mm wide. The stem is three times wider than it is thick. Sometimes one side of the stem is ground. The sides expand towards the shoulder and are seldom parallel. This point is made with percussion flaking. This is an Archaic point dating to 3,500-1,000 B.C. (Click on thumbnail for a larger image)
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Small Triangular, Serrated

(Keel)
This point is made of black chert and markedly serrated. The point may show tip wear and polish. The average length is 34 mm with an average width of 10 mm at the base. The thickness of the point is often uneven, but averages 4.5 mm.
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South Appalachian Pentagonal

(Keel)
This is a small pentagonal point made of chert. The blade is formed about half way down the length of the base. The sides make up about one half of the length of the point and are parallel. The base is straight, the widest part of the point, and one forth longer than it is wide. Points range from 22-28 mm long, 18-23 mm wide, and 5-6 mm thick. The side length is an average of 11.5 mm. The blade length is an average of 15 mm. This is a Middle Woodlands Connestee point.
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St. Albans Side-notched, variety A

(Broyles 1971)
This is a long, narrow, side notched point with a notched base and no basal grinding. The overall length ranges from 22-49 mm with a width of 13-19 mm and 5-9 mm thick. The blade is triangular with straight or excurvate sides, rarely serrated. The sharp tip can be off-center. The base is notched with the removal of two or three large flakes. The top of the stem is narrower than the shoulder, but the base is normally as wide as the shoulder. The side notches appear long and shallow. The poorly defined shoulders slope towards the tip. This is an Early Archaic point.
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St. Albans Side-notched, variety B

(Broyles 1971)
This is a small triangular blade with side notches and a notched base. Points range from 25-37 mm long, 17-22 mm wide, and 5-7 mm thick. The sides are straight or excurvate and thinned with large flakes. Sides can be serrated, but secondary chipping is rare. The sharp tip can be off-center. The base is deeply notched and smoothed from shoulder to shoulder. The well defined shoulder is usually sloped towards the tip, but can be straight. This is an Early Archaic point.
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Stanley Stemmed

(Coe 1964)
The blade is symmetrical, triangular, and broad. It has concave sides and an angular projection at the shoulder. Serrations are small on most blades, but range from deep to beveled as a result of resharpening. The base is concave and thinned with no grinding. The stem is small with parallel sides and an equal ratio of length to width. The wide shoulder is either a right angle or sloping towards the base. Points range from 40-80 mm long and 25-45 mm wide. These points are made with percussion and pressure flaking. This is an Archaic point dating to 5,500 B.C.
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Swannanoa Stemmed

(Keel)
This triangular point is small and thick with a long stem. The blade edges are straight or convex. The stem is contracting and lacks good definition. The stem is slightly wider than it is long. The base is flat, rounded, or concave and is left crude, sometimes showing the striking platform. This point is made by direct percussion. Points range from 21-43 mm long and 11-36 mm wide. This is an Early Woodland point.
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Transylvania Triangular

(Keel)
The point is large, thick, and straight-sided, with a sharp point. The base is straight or incurvate. Points range from 40-60 mm long, 24-35 mm wide, and 10-18 mm thick. This point was made with direct percussion. This is thought to be an Early Woodlands point.
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Sources

Broyles, Bettye J.
-1971 Second Preliminary Report: The St. Albans Site, Kanawha County, West Virginia, 1964-1968. Report of Archaeological Investigations 3, West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey, Morgantown.

Cambron, James W.
-1958 Projectile Point Types From the Tennessee Valley. Journal of Alabama Archaeology IV (II): 10-12.

Cambron, James W. and David C. Hulse (Edited by David L. DeJarnette)
-1969 Handbook of Alabama Archaeology, Part 1: Point Types. Alabama Archaeological Society, Huntsville.

DeJarnette, David L., Edward B. Kurjack and Bennie C. Keel
-1973 Archaeological Investigations of the Weiss Reservoir of the Coosa River in Alabama, Parts I and II. Journal of Alabama Archaeology 14(1-2).

Dickens, Roy S., Jr.
-1976 Cherokee Prehistory: The Pisgah Phase in the Appalachian Summit Region. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville.

Keel, Bennie C.
-1976 Cherokee Archaeology: A Study of the Appalachian Summit. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville.

Keel, Bennie C. and Brian J. Egloff
-1984 The Cane Creek Site, Mitchell County, North Carolina. Southern Indian Studies 33.

Kneberg, Madeline D.
-1956 Some Important Projectile Point Types Found in the Tennessee Area. Tennessee Archaeologist 12.

Ritchie, William A.
-1961 A Typology and Nomenclature of New York Projectile Points. New York State Museum and Science Service Bulletin No. 384, Albany.

South, Stanley A.
-1959 A Study of the Prehistory of the Roanoke Rapids Basin, Unpublished Masterís thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.
Suhms, Dee Ann and Alex D. Krieger
-1962 Handbook of Texas Archeology: Type Descriptions. Special Publication No. 1, Texas Archaeology Society and Bulletin No. 4, Texas Memorial Museum, Austin.

  In the Swannanoa Valley of the Blue Ridge Mountains