Glacial Scarps (click on the photo for larger image)
The mountains surrounding Willoughby Lake in Vermont consistently show steep scarps facing the south (to the left in the panoramic photo). Many people ask why all the steep sides face the same direction. The answer is explained by the glacial history of the area. Between 20,000 and 10,000 years ago the northeastern United States was covered by a large ice sheet - more than one kilometer thick - that moved slowly towards the south. The ice in the glaciers itself does not carve mountains, but the rocks imbedded in the glaciers, under the tremendous weight of the ice above, does extensive scraping and cutting reforming the valleys as well as mountain tops. These mountains are part of a monolithic granite pluton - perhaps the core of an ancient volcano about 400 million years ago. As the millennia passed, glacier erosion has smoothed over the tops of the mountains. The rounded tops is characteristic of all the mountains in the northern Appalachians. However as a hard rock under the weight of the thick ice scrapes along the top of the pluton, parts of the pluton are chipped away causing the major scarps. See the diagram below.
The mountain names in the photo are Mt. Hor - the large
mountain at the left. Wheeler Mountain is the just to the
right of center. Mt. Hor used to be called "Whaleback"
in the 18th century and early nineteenth centuries.
The whale's blowhole is the dimple in the top and the
whale's tale is obvious - unnamed in the official
maps. The "snout" of the whale is labeled Bartlett
Mountain. The photo at right shows a view from the
cliffs of Wheeler Mountain showing a south-facing 4 ft scarp
in the granite pluton produced by the rock-chipping by
glaciers. The granite is largely coated with green
lichens. A lichen is a symbionic community of algae
I learned of the theory of the steep leeward sides of
mountains formed by glaciers from a short Chautauqua-style
course, Glaciers in Alaska, led by Dr. Kristine J.
Crossen, a geology professor at the University of
Alaska, Anchorage. Many thanks to Dr. Crossen for an
informative 3 days in June, 2012!
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